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Friday, 13 July 2012

TCP/IP Model (Explained with Diagram)


The TCP/IP model (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) is a descriptive framework for the Internet Protocol Suite of computer network protocols created in the 1970s. It is the basic communication language or protocol of the Internet. It can also be used as a communications protocol in a private network (either an intranet or an extranet). When you are set up with direct access to the Internet, your computer is provided with a copy of the TCP/IP program just as every other computer that you may send messages to or get information from also has a copy of TCP/IP. The TCP/IP Model is sometimes called the Internet Model.
There are consists of Four layers following:
 4) Application layer
3) Transport layer
2) Internet layer
1)  Network layer
 4) Application layer:
This is the top layer of TCP/IP protocol suite. This layer includes applications or processes that use transport layer protocols to deliver the data to destination computers.
This layer is responsible for converting the data into Binary form(0,1).This layer makes the communication between two host possible.
At each layer there are certain protocol options to carry out the task designated to that particular layer. So, application layer also has various protocols that applications use to communicate with the second layer, the transport layer.
3)Transport layer:
This layer provides backbone to data flow between two hosts. This layer receives data from the application layer above it. There are many protocols that work at this layer but the two most commonly used protocols at transport layer are TCP and UDP.
This layer is responsible for end-to-end delivers of messages b/w the network host. It also guarantees error free data delivery without loss or duplications.
2) Internet layer
This layer is also known as network layer. The main purpose of this layer is to organize or handle the movement of data on network. By movement of data, we generally mean routing of data over the network. The main protocol used at this layer is IP.
1) Network layer
This layer is also known as data link  layer. This layer normally consists of device drivers in the OS and the network interface card attached to the system.
Data link layer is responsible for moving frames from one source to next destination. Data link layer is used by hubs and switches for their operation.
This layer is responsible for movement for individual bit from source to destination.


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